Friday, January 31, 2020
Review of Related Literature Essay Example for Free
Review of Related Literature Essay This chapter of the research caters to the principles of English as Second Language (ESL); Writing Development of ESL Students; English Structural Problems Encountered by Chinese Students; and Common Errors on Grammar of Chinese Students. English as a Second Language (ESL) is a process of instruction of English in an English speaking country whose mother tongue is a different language (Rosenthal, 2000, p. 73). On the other hand, the method of teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) comprises of teaching English in a particular country wherein English is not the primary language being used (Rosenthal, 2000, p. 73). Students who are studying English as a second language are described as nonnative speakers, language minority students, second language learners, and students with limited English proficiency (Rosenthal, 2000, p. 73). According to Cochran (1992) as cited from Rosenthal (2000), there are generally six identified groups of the ESL college population who needs help with their English, in which four of them required a special ESL instruction in order to continue their college education. The first group is the Native speakers of English who are students who are monolingual, bilingual or bidialectical in nature. This group of students is born in the United States and needs a remedial or basic English skills instruction, focusing more on academic writing (Rosenthal, 2000, p. 74). Second among the groups are called close to native speakers in which they comprise of students who came in various ethnic backgrounds but from a society who practices English at home or with peers. The third group is made by foreign-educated adults with no knowledge in English. This group of individuals is made of students who are well educated in their respective countries and have a good grasp of English grammar and English reading skills; they normally stays in the United States for the sake of continuing education. The foreign-educated adults with no knowledge of English are the group of students who are as described by Cochran as virtually no knowledge of English from any other source who are normally composed of individuals who after graduated high school moved in the United States and have been observed as having gaps and certain problems in their English. The fifth in the group is called the native speakers with limited schooling; more often, immigrants and refugees compose this group. They are characterized by low-level language skills both in their native tongue and English. As a result, it is often perceived that their manner of speaking is not really a standard in neither language. The last group is the nonnative not literate speakers. These individuals are categorized as lacking knowledge both in their native language and the English language (Rosenthal, 2000, p. 74). The process of learning the English language has been strictly categorized in a strict sequence such as Ã¢â¬Å"listen, speak, read and then write (Perotta, 1994, p. 237). As such, the learning emphasizes a strict stage-by-stage approach in learning the English language. Hudelson (1984) as cited from Perotta (1994) had pointed out that the process of contemporary ESL instruction is characterized by programs that place strict limitations on writing to prevent error (p. 237). As such, it is often the case that students are only asked to write what only they have learned or used to do in orally in formal lessons. One significant study that could be cited is the one of Franklin (1986) as cited from Perotta (1994) who made a study between the educational framework and the learning patterns of native English speakers and ESL students. The study viewed that the capacity of the latter are hugely characterized of strict programs that are designed in order to prevent errors in their writing methods. As such, ESL students are only permitted to write what they have practiced orally. Methods such as language drill work, copying, filling in blanks and taking dictation often limit the capacity of ESL student to learn. Studies shown by Rigg (1981) and Urza (1987) as cited from Perotta (1994) have shown that a good number of students are capable of writing things that they are not able to control orally. One specific example that could be cited is the work if a student who appears to be not doing well in speaking English but was able to write the following: Ones supon a time ther livd a good harted lien. he difrent from de adrs. He ws good toode adr animoles and de adr animoles wer good too hem. Ande he dident like too fte and he dident like de adr animol too fte. He somtims guen [when] da abr animoles fte gued [with] hime and he liked too play and he livd gapolievr aftr (p. 267). This example implies then that an effective ESL learning process, most specially if focusing on writing must allow students to learn in a manner that is closely similar to native English speakers. ESL learners must be allowed and encouraged to write as much as they can. The process of writing could be learned through practice, observation, trial and error and also receiving feedbacks from other people and peers as well Perotta (1994).